History (For 2015–2016 academic year) Professors
Banner-Haley, Douglas, Dudden, Harsin, Hodges, B.L. Moore, Robinson, Rotter, Stevens Associate Professors
, Cooper, Etefa, Khan, Nemes Assistant Professors
Balachandran, Bouk, Karn, Roller Visiting Assistant Professors
Today the study of human history is critical to global survival; the experiences of others serve as guides to present and future conduct. At the same time, exposure to rigorous historical method and clear narrative style develops conceptual skills, research competence, writing fluency, and sensitivity to the uses and abuses of language and historical knowledge. The history department curriculum includes courses on African, Asian, Caribbean, European, Latin American, Middle Eastern, and North American subjects, and on contact and interaction among these societies. Majors are encouraged to take courses in related departments and programs. Competence in at least one foreign language is also desirable.
Prospective majors should begin with 100- and 200-level courses, and should complete HIST 299
by the end of the sophomore year. To be admitted to the major, students must have earned a GPA of 2.00 in all history courses taken. Students not meeting this requirement may petition the department for permission to begin the major. To qualify for graduation with a major in history, students must have achieved a minimum GPA of 2.00 over all courses taken in the department.
The major in history consists of nine courses, including the following:
- Three courses at the 100 or 200 level. These courses should be taken before the conclusion of the sophomore year. They must include one in each of the three following areas:
United States (US)
Global (GL) — Africa, Asia, Latin America, Atlantic World, the Middle East, the Caribbean, or Comparative
Europe (EU), including areas of the former Soviet Union
Students who have AP credit in U.S. history should satisfy the requirement for a US course at the 200 level; students who have AP credit in European history should satisfy the requirement for an EU course at the 200 level. No course may count for more than one area (US, GL, or EU). For more AP history information, see “Advanced Placement and Transfer Credit” below.
- HIST 299, History Workshop (formerly HIST 200). All majors must take HIST 299, normally before the conclusion of sophomore year. HIST 200 does not count toward requirement 1.
- Three courses at the 300 level.
- One seminar at the 400 level other than HIST 490. All majors must take at least one seminar in the junior or senior year.
- One additional history course at any level except 100. For this course, students may substitute an advanced (300-level) foreign language course taught at Colgate or accepted for Colgate credit. Courses taught in translation do not meet this requirement.
- Two of the nine courses must be in the global (GL) area. One of the nine courses for the major may be taught by a non-departmental historian. This includes history courses offered in off-campus study groups, at other institutions, and at Colgate; all such courses are subject to approval by the history department.
The minor in history consists of five courses, including:
- Two courses at the 100 and 200 levels, only one of which can be a 100-level course.
- HIST 299, History Workshop (formerly HIST 200)
- One course at the 300 level.
- One seminar at the 400 level.
- The four courses other than HIST 299 must fall into at least two of the three areas (US, GL, and EU) noted above.
Honors and High Honors
Candidates for honors in history must:
- Have or exceed, by the time of graduation, a major GPA of 3.50 and an overall GPA of 3.00;
- Complete an honors thesis that has been judged by the major adviser and one other department faculty member to be of A or A– quality. The thesis is normally expected to be completed in two terms. It may be started in any 400-level history seminar, any history 300- or 400-level independent study, or the London History Study Group; papers may also be developed from the term paper in any 300-level history course. A candidate is encouraged to enroll subsequently in HIST 490 to complete the thesis.
Candidates for high honors in history must
- Have or exceed by the time of graduation, a major GPA of 3.75 and an overall GPA of 3.00;
- Complete an honors thesis that has been judged by the major adviser and by one other department faculty member to be of A quality;
- Defend the paper in an oral examination before the two faculty readers. The examination must also be judged to be of excellent quality.
See “Honors and Awards: History” in Chapter VI.
Advanced Placement and Transfer Credit
Students with scores of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in European or American history will receive credit toward graduation but not
toward the major or minor. Those granted AP credit in European history may not repeat HIST 101
without permission of the department chair; those granted AP credit in American history may not repeat HIST 103
without permission of the department chair. No department credit or exemption is given for an AP score of 3 or for AP courses taken without the AP examination. Majors may not count course credit given for AP in history toward the nine total courses required. Minors may not count course credit given for AP in history toward the five total courses required.
Requests for transfer of external credits toward the major or minor should be directed to the department chair. Courses must be of comparable quality to ones offered at Colgate to be approved for transfer.
Colgate students who have not transferred from another institution should consult the department chair before enrolling in courses at other institutions or in approved off–campus study programs. Permission to use such courses for major or minor credit is granted selectively, and only one course may be approved.
The Department of Educational Studies offers a teacher education program for majors in history who are interested in pursuing a career in elementary or secondary school teaching. Please refer to “Educational Studies.”
Only MAT students may take graduate-level versions of history department classes, which are given 500-level course numbers. For further details, see the MAT entry under “Educational Studies.”
London Study Group
Every year the history department conducts a study group in London. Admission is selective and limited to students of suitable interest and academic background. Interested students should inquire the preceding year. Prospective students must take HIST 299, History Workshop
(formerly HIST 200
) and HIST 300, The London Colloquium
before going to London, and should be in residence the semester before departure. For more information, see “Off-Campus Study” in Chapter VI.
Course Offerings HIST courses count toward the Social Relations, Institutions, and Agents area of inquiry requirement, unless otherwise noted. 101 The Growth of National States in Europe (EU) Staff
This course examines national states after 1450; conflict for domination in Europe and world-wide commercial and colonial ambitions; Renaissance culture, the Protestant revolt, Spanish ascendancy; 17th-century French absolutism and constitutional government in England; Austria, the weakened Germanies, the rise of Prussia and Russia; 18th-century liberalism; and the French Revolution, Napoleonic conquest, and European settlement of 1815. Not open to students with AP credit in European history. 102 Europe in Crisis since 1815 (EU) Staff
This course explores the social, economic, political, and cultural history of Europe over the last two centuries. Topics include Metternich and the revolutions of 1848, nationalism and the unification of Italy and Germany, the Industrial Revolution and the growth of socialism, imperialism and the alliance system, the Russian Revolution and the two World Wars, Stalinism and the fall of the Soviet Empire after 1989, and the development of the European Union. Not open to students with AP credit in European history. 103 American History to 1877 (US) Staff
This course is a broad survey of key patterns, events, and the history of peoples in America from ca. 1500 to 1877. It covers the breadth of Native American life and the effects of European settlement, the colonial and constitutional periods through the age of reform, the crisis of union, and the Civil War and Reconstruction. Using lectures, discussions, movies, and student research, the course prepares students for upper-level courses in early American history. Not open to students with AP credit in U.S. history. 104 The United States since 1877 (US) Staff
A survey of United States history from the era of Reconstruction to the present. Topics include post-Reconstruction racial retrenchment in the South; immigration; the rise of industrialism and the response to it by farmers and workers; Populism and Progressivism; women’s suffrage and the modern women’s movement; the World Wars, the Cold War, Korea, and Vietnam; the New Deal and public policy; the cultural convulsions of the 1920s and 1960s; the victories and frustrations of the Civil Rights movement; and the post-Cold War period. Not open to students with AP credit in U.S. history. 191 Independent Research: Design and Direction R. Nemes
This 0.25-credit course is designed for first-year students in the Alumni Memorial Scholarship program. Its purpose is to help students think about what it means to design and carry out an independent research project. Discussion and readings thus focus on asking research questions, identifying sources that can help answer these questions, and writing research proposals. 202 Europe in the Middle Ages, c. 300–1500 (EU) A. Cooper
The Middle Ages were a period of enormous transformation and creativity in Europe. This course examines the emergence of medieval civilization from the ruins of the ancient world and the subsequent evolution of that civilization into modern Europe. Themes to be covered include the fall of Rome, the spread of Christianity and the conflicts within the medieval church, the rise and fall of Byzantium, the challenge of Islam and the crusades, the Vikings, the development of the medieval economy, the feudal revolution, the 12th-century Renaissance, ocess of interaction were unintended. Students explore the configuration of European, African, and Native American societies before contact and the configuration of new communities in the New World; the slave trade and the establishment of the plantation complex from Brazil to South Carolina; the spread of Christianity in the New World; the development of scientific practices in the service of imperial and national states; the establishment of labor systems; and the different strategies of accommodation, resistance, and rebellion of the different actors trying to find/protect their place in the Atlantic world. This course intends to provide a regional framework for the study of colonial societies in the western hemisphere as well as for the study of emerging empires and states in Europe. 212 The Emergence of the Modern Woman (GL) F. Dudden, J. Harsin, C. Stevens
A comparative and cross-cultural approach to modern women’s history, from the Enlightenment to the present. The course considers common elements of women’s experience in modern history, including changes in fertility and sexuality, increasing educational attainment, transformations in economic roles, and new access to political power. Students explore the importance of women’s own agency, or resistance to oppression, in bringing about and exploiting these changes; and they assess the diversity of women’s identities as conditioned, for example, by class, race, or ethnicity. The course emphasizes the particular history of different nations or regions depending on the instructor, but it always involves students learning to work within a comparative framework. 214 American Cultural and Intellectual History (US) D. Bouk
This course surveys the history of American culture and intellectual life beginning in the North American colonies and finishing in today’s United States. Students critically examine the works of great American writers, playwrights, thinkers, scientists, musicians, artists, and statesmen. They explore the many ways people have thought about the United States and its inhabitants over time, and investigate the institutions responsible for producing and reproducing American culture. 215 American Foreign Relations, 1776–1917 (US) A. Rotter
This course examines the development of American foreign relations from the Declaration of Independence to the entry of the United States into World War I. The course considers the emergence of competing ideas about the place of the United States in the world in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, and such subjects as the formation of early American foreign policy, tensions with Europe, westward expansion and the war with Mexico, the growth of American economic power, and the rise of U.S. imperialism. 216 U.S. Foreign Policy, 1917–Present (US) A. Rotter
U.S. foreign relations from the entry into the Great War to the present. Topics include the unquiet “normalcy” of the 1920s, origins of U.S. participation in the Second World War, the atomic bombs, the Cold War, the Korean and Vietnam Wars, arms control, the end of the Cold War, and the new world of terrorism and conflict. 218 The African American Struggle for Freedom and Democracy (US) C. Banner-Haley
This course surveys the presence of African Americans in the United States and their struggle for freedom under the concept of democracy. The course examines African origins, the Middle Passage, the creation of an African American culture in slavery, the Civil War and Reconstruction, the growth of black communities in the face of hostility, the African American impact on American culture, the Civil Rights movement, and the continuing struggle by African Americans to make democracy real. 220 American Environmental History (US) D. Bouk
This course investigates the place of the natural world in American history, drawing on episodes ranging from the Columbian encounter up to today. It measures the impact of Americans on their environment and the degree to which aspects of that environment have shaped human history in turn. Throughout the course, students explore the ways Americans have understood their relationship to nature over the last 500 years. They also apply the methods of environmental history to their own investigation of a particular American place. 225 Jamaica: From Colony to Independence (GL) B.L. Moore
This course surveys the history of Jamaica from 1655 when the British took possession of the island through political independence in 1962, to the present. It examines the growth of Jamaica to become Britain’s most prosperous colony during the 18th century based on an export sugar-based, slave-driven economy; the social the political consequences of its dependence on slavery; the economic effects of slave abolition and free trade during the 19th century; social and political developments after emancipation; the growth of black nationalism and decolonization; and post/neo-colonial developments. This course is crosslisted as ALST 225. 228 The Caribbean: Conquest, Colonization, and Self-Determination (GL) B.L. Moore
This course surveys Caribbean history from European conquest and colonization to political independence. It introduces students to the salient features of the region’s history from the initial contact between European settlers and the indigenous peoples; through the rise of plantations and African slavery, the struggles for freedom, post-slavery social and economic developments; to the rise of nationalism leading to political self-determination, and the new American imperialism. This course is crosslisted as ALST 228. 230 The Making of Latin America (GL) H. Roller
How did indigenous peoples, Europeans, Africans, and their mixed-race descendants become “Latin American”? How have people challenged colonial rule and its enduring legacies? Why have dictatorships or military regimes so often taken the reins of power, and what roles has the United States played in the region’s politics and development? This course, which surveys a broad swath of Latin American history from the 16th century to the present, addresses these and other questions through a wide range of sources. Particular attention is paid to records of life and thought left by individuals, who either composed documents themselves or spoke through the writings of others. 231 Resistance and Revolt in Latin America (GL) H. Roller
This course examines a broad range of revolts and revolutionary movements in Latin America, from the colonial period through the 20th century. Some of these successfully overthrew ruling regimes; other did not but left a lasting mark on the region’s history. Also examined are less organized forms of resistance, including sabotage, absenteeism, and riots used by slaves and workers to protest their conditions of life and labor. Case studies include Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, Colombia, and Guatemala. 232 The Crusades (EU) A. Cooper
In 1099, a crusading army sacked Jerusalem, killing Muslims, Jews, and Christians alike. This act of savagery earned the crusade fame in Christian Europe and infamy in the Islamic world, prompting a crusade movement in the West and a military reaction in the East. The forces stirred up by these events also led Western Europe toward the conquest of Spain, Eastern Europe, Greece, and eventually the Americas and beyond. In this course, students study the causes, progress, and results of the Crusades themselves, as well as the new colonial societies that developed in their wake. Students focus on the transformation of four cultures: western Christendom, Judaism, Byzantium, and Islam. 233 Old Regime, French Revolution, and Napoleonic Empire (EU) J. Harsin
A survey of the political, social, and military history of France from the death of Louis XIV to the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo. There is particular emphasis on court society and absolutism, the transformation of politics and the economy through revolution and war, the meaning of the Reign of Terror, royalist counterrevolution, and the rise and fall of Napoleon. CLAS 236, Greek History (EU)
or CLAS 237, Roman History (EU)
may be taken for history major credit. 238 Europe in the Age of the Renaissance and Reformation (EU) J. Harsin
A survey of early modern European history. Emphasis is on the Renaissance and the age of exploration, the Reformation and religious wars, and the development of the absolutist state. Topics include the emergence of European capitalism, popular culture, the witchcraze, and the development of printing and literature. 241 Tudor-Stuart Britain (EU) Staff
In 1485, Henry Tudor became king of England. A second-rate power in Europe, his kingdom had been torn apart by dynastic struggles and civil war. By 1714, when the last of the Stuart monarchs died, everything had changed. England was now part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, which included Scotland and Wales, and whose king also ruled over the neighboring island of Ireland. The medieval feudal kingship had been replaced by a well-established parliamentary monarchy, with many stops along the way. Britain was now a world power, at the center of a far-flung empire, and competing with France for dominance in Europe and beyond. This course explores precisely how these monumental changes came about, taking a close look at British history over the long 16th and 17th centuries from a number of different perspectives: political, religious, social, cultural, commercial, and intellectual. 254 History of Coffee and Cigarettes (GL) R. Nemes
How did Arabian coffee and American tobacco become global vices? How has the use and meaning of these everyday products changed over time? Why are so many people drawn to caffeine and nicotine — and why do they have such a hard time quitting them? This course traces the history of coffee and cigarettes from the 1500s to the present. Readings and discussions range from 16th-century Turkish coffeehouses to 21st-century Starbucks, and from the prohibition by King James I of tobacco to contemporary debates on second-hand smoke. Other historical topics include the discovery and diffusion of coffee and tobacco; the establishment and spread of coffeehouses; early prohibitions on tobacco use; the connections between colonialism and consumer goods; and the medical, economic, and political debates surrounding these products in the 20th century. 255 The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1924 (GL) N. Khan
The Ottoman Empire lasted for over six centuries and was one of the last multi-ethnic empires in world history. States that were once part of the empire include Iraq, Israel, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Libya, Greece, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia. This course examines the social, political, and economic life of the Ottoman state from its beginnings among nomadic tribesmen to the fall of the “Grand Turk” in World War I. Issues addressed include the organization of structures of control over such a large and heterogeneous population and the maintenance of a relatively high level of integration in society over time. The factors that led to the disintegration of this empire, including nationalism and colonialism, are also examined. 259 Introduction to the Modern Middle East (GL) N. Khan
This is a beginning course for study of the Middle East region, and a nuts-and-bolts primer on understanding the background for current events. Students learn the political, geographical, and social/ethnic borders that divide the region and the distribution of languages and faiths across it. The historical content of the course is a survey of the past two centuries, with emphasis on the 20th century. No prior knowledge of the Middle East is assumed. 261 Modern Irish History (EU) R. Douglas
Few Western European countries have had as turbulent a recent history as Ireland, nor one whose legacy remains as persistent. This course focuses on Ireland’s evolution from Britain’s oldest colony to a self-governing state, culminating in her current situation as a divided nation whose acute internal tensions sit uneasily within a broader framework of European unity. Although the independence struggle and Anglo-Irish relations in general feature prominently, the course goes beyond the “national question” to examine such issues as the growth of Irish culture, images of Irishness at home and abroad, developments in social and economic history, and the complex roots of the conflict in Northern Ireland. 263 The Silk Road (GL) C. Stevens
This course offers an overview of the cultural and economic relationships that developed across Eurasia from the 1st to the 17th centuries CE. The course focuses on the fabled “Silk Road,” an overlapping series of overland trade routes through Central Asia that connected China and Japan with Western Europe. The impact of the silk road was as often regional and local as it was intercontinental; most travelers did not cover the whole route but remained in areas that were indigenous to them. The course examines a number of very broad themes, such as the interaction of nomadic and sedentary peoples, the spread of religions, cultural confrontation, and syncretism. The course is a challenging one for both instructor and students in that it covers an enormous geographic, cultural, and chronological span. 264 Modern East Asia (GL) D. Robinson
This course examines the formation of modern East Asia, with particular focus on China, Japan, and Korea. The course explores the changing role of empire and nation, indigenous reevaluations of tradition, and finally the shifting political, economic, and military relations among China, Japan, and Korea. The course concludes with a look at East Asia’s evolving place in the world as a whole. 265 War and Violence in East Asia (GL) D. Robinson
This course explores the place of war and violence in East Asian societies from 1200 to 1700. Among the many topics examined are samurai, ninja, martial arts, Ghenghis Khan, and piracy. First, students look at the internal organization of armies, their place in domestic politics and society, and their role in foreign relations. Second, they examine the impact of war on religion, economics, politics, and the arts. Third, because of its importance, violence was tightly linked to religion, literature, and popular theater. Finally, the course considers the various ways that these traditions attempted to prevent, control, and manipulate violence through examining political philosophy, law codes, and social mores. 268 South Asian History to 1500 (GL) J. Balachandran
This course surveys majors themes in the political, social, economic, and cultural history of ancient and medieval South Asia beginning with the Harappan Civilization (c. 2600 BCE) and ending with the early 16th century CE. The course familiarizes students with several key historical developments and processes that defined the region in this period, including the beginnings of the first urban settlements, the emergence of empires, and the rise of diverse religious and cultural traditions. Students learn how the nature of primary sources for historical reconstruction changes over the course of this long time period and focus on several historiographical debates that have shaped our understanding of the region’s past. No prior background in South Asian history is required for this course. 269 History of Modern India (GL) J. Balachandran
This course surveys the history of South Asian from the expansion of the Mughal Empire in the early modern period and the rise of the British colonial power in the 18th and 19th centuries to the emergences of modern nation states. The course also looks at the different political, economic, and cultural trajectories that these nation states, particularly India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, have taken since independence. With the aim of developing a historical perspective to the complex and often paradoxical social, religious, and political identities that the region of South Asia exhibits today, this course introduces students to a diverse set of primary sources ranging from Mughal court chronicles, European travel accounts and autobiographies to public speeches and official correspondences. Although this course complements the survey of the ancient and medieval history of South Asia taught in HIST 268
, no prior background in South Asian history is required. 271 The First World War (EU) R. Nemes
Was the First World War a “tragic and unnecessary conflict,” as one of its leading historians has recently suggested? Why did men continue to fight amid horror and misery? And how did total war rend the fabric of society, politics, and everyday life? To answer these and other questions, this course examines the First World War from a variety of perspectives. Attention is paid to its origins and outbreak, its conduct by generals and common soldiers, its effect on women and workers, and its wide ranging consequences, both on individuals and empires. The course concludes with a discussion of how the First World War has shaped the world in which we live today. 272 War and Holocaust in Europe (EU) R. Douglas, A. Karn
Focusing on one of the darkest chapters in European history, this course examines the causes, conduct, and consequences of the Second World War and maps the terrible course of the Holocaust. Chronologically, the course begins with Hitler’s seizure of power and ends with the collapse of this empire in 1945; thematically, it gives special attention to collaboration and resistance, morale and mobilization, and military and diplomatic turning points. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the experience of ordinary men and women, whether on the home front or the battle front, in neutral or warring states, in hiding or in the camps. 274 Jewish History I (EU) Staff
This course introduces students to Jewish history from Biblical times to the early modern period. Drawing on examples from Babylon to Spain, the course situates Jewish culture and religion within a broader historical context. Topics include Biblical Israel; the confrontation between Hellenism and Judaism; the destruction of the Second Temple; the emergence of rabbinic Judaism and Christianity; Jews’ legal status and economic activities in medieval Muslim and Christian states; medieval Jewish philosophy, mysticism, and schisms; Christian anti-Judaism; and Jewish attitudes toward non-Jews and responses to persecution. This course is crosslisted as JWST 274. 275 Modern Jewish History (EU) Staff
This course focuses on the experience of Jews in the modern era, from 1871 with the emancipation of the Jews of Germany to the immediate aftermath of the Second World War and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. Topics include expulsions and migrations, emancipation and acculturation, anti-Semitism and the Holocaust, modern Jewish nationalism movements such as Zionism, the establishment of the State of Israel, and the expansion of American Jewish communities and the reassertion of Jewish life in Europe in the aftermath of the Holocaust. This course is crosslisted as JWST 275. 281 Slavery and the Slave Trade in Africa (GL) T. Etefa
Slavery and the slave trade are global phenomena with historical roots in the earliest civilizations. The course examines the long history of slavery and the slave trade in African societies, exploring the role that slavery played in African economic, political, and social life, as well as how the export of human beings as slaves transformed African societies. The course also considers how slaveholders and slaves shaped early African societies, the logic and consequences of African participation in the Atlantic slave trade, the aftermath of abolition in 20th-century colonial Africa, and how coercive forms of labor control have persisted into the 21st century. This course is crosslisted as ALST 281. 282 The Making of Modern Africa (GL) T. Etefa
This course surveys the history of Africa from 1880s to the contemporary period. Major themes will include: the imperial scramble and partition of Africa; African resistances; colonial rule in Africa; independence and problems of independence; socio-economic developments in independent Africa; ethnic conflicts; crises and contemporary issues. Lectures will be supplemented by discussions, film, and group activities. Distributed across the semester, there will be short papers in addition to midterm and final examinations. This course is crosslisted as ALST 282. 284 Decolonization in Africa (GL) T. Etefa
This course surveys the history of the growth of anti-colonial nationalism, the end of colonial rule, and post-independence Africa to the contemporary period. It focuses on the comparative analysis of the winning of independence from French, British, Italian, Portuguese, and Belgian colonization. Major themes include African responses to colonial rule, wind of change, independence and problems of independence, pan-African movement, socio-economic developments, cold war, colonial legacies, political systems, and contemporary issues. Lectures are supplemented by discussions, film, and group presentations. This course is crosslisted as ALST 284. 299 History Workshop Staff
This course trains students in historical methods by focusing on research, writing, and communication skills. Students learn to understand historiographical debates, assemble and assess bibliographies, find and interpret primary sources, construct effective written arguments, cite sources correctly, and develop appropriate oral communication skills. Depending on the instructor, the course may also include the use of non-traditional sources such as film or material culture, as well as the interpretation of historic sites, monuments, and landscapes. History Workshop is intended for majors or potential majors and should be taken in the first two years. (Formerly HIST 200.
) HIST 299 is normally a prerequisite for all 300- and 400-level courses. 300 The London Colloquium Staff
This course, taught each fall semester, is intended for students accepted to the London History Study Group the following spring. It has three purposes: first, to introduce students to subject matter to be covered in the instructor’s London seminar; second, to get students started on the London-based seminar projects, to be researched and finished under the auspices of HIST 491
in London; and third, to prepare students for life and work in London through study of the city’s history and culture. The course is taught by the study group director for each academic year. 303 The Nation on Trial, 1787–1861 (US) G. Hodges
This course examines the development of republican institutions of government and political parties; retention of colonial society and customs; aspects of the social history of the American people (including slaves, immigrants, and women); and the political crises leading to the creation of the Republican Party, the secession of the South, and the Civil War. 305 Asian American History (US) G. Hodges
This course offers an in-depth survey of the history of people of Asian descent from the first arrivals of significant numbers of Asians in America in the mid-19th century to the present, with heavier emphasis on the post-1965 era. In that year, the Hart-Cellar Act lifted earlier restrictions on Asian immigration and initiated substantial migration from the East. The course covers significant events and people in Asian American history while examining the course of ordinary individuals through demography, law, family, and cultural history. This history enables students to learn about and analyze issues of tradition/modernity; race, acculturation, and identity politics; culture and the intersection of laws and politics; and multiculturalism. While coverage extends to every Asian nationality present in the United States, emphasis is placed on the largest groups including Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Filipinos. 306 History of Numbers in America (US) D. Bouk
Students in this course explore American history by asking how numbers have come to play such a powerful role in shaping American lives. Case studies present the histories of some of American society’s most important numbers, including IQ and SAT scores, credit ratings and stock indices, BMI and the calorie, census data and the consumer price index. Students learn the methods of cultural and intellectual history. They develop new conceptual tools for understanding US history, as well as the history of science, business, and the modern state. 309 Culture and Society in Cold War America (US) D. Bouk
For more than 40 years, the Cold War cast a long shadow over American culture and society, shaping everything from gender roles to religious practice, from funding for science to the struggle for civil rights. This course explores the impact of the Cold War on the American home. Topics include American reactions to the atomic bomb, the role of civil defense, McCarthyism, the culture of consumption, and the impact of the Cold War on the family, politics, religion, science, and popular culture. Finally, the course considers the domestic legacy of the early Cold War, asking to what degree it retarded or set the stage for the social movements of the 1960s. 311 Women’s Rights and Women’s Suffrage in U.S. History (US) F. Dudden
This course deals with the emergence and progress of women’s rights as an idea and a social movement, especially with women’s struggle to win the vote. It is concerned with the origins, theories, goals, tactics, accomplishments, and shortcomings of this major movement for social change. Prerequisite: HIST 200
. 313 Upstate History (US) F. Dudden
The political, social, and cultural history of Upstate New York State, with the primary emphasis on Central New York in the first half of the 19th century. Frontier displacement of Native Americans, the Erie Canal, the Second Great Awakening, utopian communities and perfectionism, radical anti-slavery, and women’s rights are among the topics considered. Students are encouraged to use local primary sources in their research projects. Prerequisites: HIST 103,
or AP credit in U.S. history, or permission of instructor. 314 The Reconstruction Era (US) F. Dudden
Reconstructing the South after secession and civil war, and after the emancipation of some four million slaves, was arguably the greatest deliberately undertaken social project in American history. It began almost as soon as the war broke out, in captured territory in 1861, and lasted until the so-called Compromise of 1877 withdrew the last federal troops from the South. There is limited coverage of wartime events and military history. Topics from political history include the presidencies of Andrew Johnson and U.S. Grant, impeachment, Radical Reconstruction, the Reconstruction (13th, 14th, and 15th) Amendments, the uneasy coalitions and terrorist violence that marked southern politics in those years, and the process known as “Redemption.” The course also deals with topics drawn from social and cultural history, African-American history, women’s history, and contemporaneous developments in the North and the West. Prerequisites: HIST 200
. 316 The United States in Vietnam, 1945–1975 (US) A. Rotter
The origins, progress, and consequences of the U.S. war in Vietnam. The course opens with a chronological overview of the war and U.S. decision making, then examines several key interpretations of American intervention, explores special topics on the war (including antiwar protest and the war as an international event), and concludes with a look at the legacy of the war. 318 African American History: African Background to Emancipation (US) C. Banner-Haley
This is a course in the history of African American people from 1619 to 1865. The emphasis is on the transition from Africa to the New World, the slavery experience, and the transition from slavery to freedom. The ideology of racism, the formation of racial identity within the diaspora, and the importance of African American culture are also studied. (When HIST 318ES
is listed, the course includes an extended study option.) Prerequisite: HIST 218
. 319 African American Leadership and Social Movements (US) C. Banner-Haley
This is a research-oriented course that examines the history of African American leadership and those social movements that have impacted the black world and the United States in the late 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. Topics include Reconstruction, the movement to build black communities, the civil rights/black power movements, and the continuing struggle to achieve social justice in the 21st century. Prerequisite: HIST 218
or permission of instructor. 320 New York City History (US) G. Hodges
This survey of key patterns of development of New York’s society, economy, and culture from colonial through recent history includes contact and syncretistic cultures of Iroquois, Dutch, German, English, and Afro-Americans; impact of New York’s post-revolutionary growth; establishment of metropolitan culture and politics; social and political ramifications of New York’s transport and trade; rise of ethnic democracy in 19th and 20th centuries; New York’s place in national perspective; perspectives for the future. 322 Race and Ethnicity in Latin America (GL) H. Roller
This course examines the history of racial and ethnic difference in Latin America, focusing on how racial and ethnic labels were bestowed, claimed, and disputed; what these implied for personal and collective identity; and how other social hierarchies (such as class and gender) operated alongside race and ethnicity in determining status. Attention is also paid to how ideas of race and ethnicity changed over time, especially in moments of economic or political crisis, and how these ideas were taken up by different social groups and in pursuit of various agendas (revolutionary, nationalistic, modernizing, etc.). The course spans the colonial period to the present, with case studies from Mexico, Brazil, the Caribbean, and the Andes. 327 Authoritarianism, Dictatorship, and Democracy in the Caribbean (GL) B.L. Moore
This course examines the political development of the Caribbean from European occupation and colonization to the present. The imperial and societal foundations of authoritarianism in the Caribbean are studied, as are the popular democratic impulses arising especially since the end of slavery and culminating in self-governing “democratic” political regimes. This course is crosslisted as ALST 327. 331 Medieval Italy, c. 1000–1500 (EU) A. Cooper
Italy in the Middle Ages comprised an immense variety of cultures and societies, from papal Rome to republican Venice, from Arab and Norman Sicily to the commercial cities of the north. This course examines the politics, economy, and religion of the Italian peninsula from 1000 to 1500, including the Italian Renaissance — the great flowering of thought, literature, and art that began in Florence in the 14th century. 332 Medieval England (EU) A. Cooper
Topics in the history of England between the years 600 and 1500. The focus may in a particular semester be the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, the Norman Conquest and the origins of English law, or revolutions and piety in the later Middle Ages. 333 The Medieval Church (EU) A. Cooper
This course studies the development of the theology, institutions, and practice of Christianity in the medieval West. Topics to be covered include the early Church; the rise of the papacy and monasticism; the relationship of Catholicism with Jews, Muslims, and Orthodox Christians; the challenge of heresy; the Investiture Conflict; and the shaping of doctrine and practice. 334 France: 1815–Present (EU) J. Harsin
A survey of the political and social history of France from the fall of Napoleon to the divided present with particular emphasis on violence and civil disorder, the peasantry, the Paris Commune, the Dreyfus Affair, the experiences of World War I, and the Vichy era. French majors are encouraged to enroll. 335 Spain and Portugal in the Age of Empires (EU) A. Barrera
This course explores the history of Spain and Portugal from the late 15th century to the 18th century. It studies the political, military, economic, and cultural factors involved in the formation of their nation-states and empires as well as their competition with other European powers. It covers such topics as the integration of regions into central states, the role of the “other” in defining identities, religious reforms and practices, gender relations, the establishment of European communities in America, and the slave trade. 336 The History of Science from Antiquity to Newton (EU) A. Barrera
This course provides a survey of Western thought about the natural world from the work of ancient philosophers to the work of Isaac Newton. Topics covered include the differences between science and natural philosophy; the role of Plato and Aristotle in the development of Western European natural philosophy; intersections between natural philosophy and technology in ancient Rome and medieval Europe; the growth of the university as a center of natural philosophical study; the role of Atlantic explorations in the development of science; the new cosmologies of the early modern period; and the growth of science, scientific culture, and experimental method. 337 Pirates in the Atlantic World, 1500s–1730 (GL) A. Barrera
This course examines the emergence of piracy and pirates in the Atlantic World. During the early modern period (15th to 18th centuries), violence and robbery at sea became very intense, giving rise to famous figures. In the second half of the 17th century, pirates established a permanent presence in the Caribbean Sea, and their activities in the area are associated with the first Golden Age of Piracy. A second Golden Age dates from 1713 (Treaty of Utrecht) to the 1730s. The British Navy led an intense campaign against piracy in the 18th century and eventually removed pirates from the Caribbean Sea. This course explores the role pirates played in the development of Atlantic empires, colonial American societies, the transatlantic slave trade, and the Atlantic commercial system from the 16th to the 18th centuries, as well as international legal issues and gender issues. 338 The Age of Absolutism in Europe (EU) J. Harsin
This course covers the development of political absolutism in Europe, with a special focus on France from 1589 to 1774. The construction of absolutism in France began with the first Bourbon monarch, Henri IV, reached its high point under the Sun King, Louis XIV, and began to decline under XV, whose many failures led the way to the French Revolution in 1789. Topics include the intellectual and religious justification for absolutism; the political and cultural role of Versailles and courtly etiquette; the crushing of the power of the nobility; wars, the economy, and the rise of the modern army; alternate models of absolutism in central and eastern Europe; and the failure of absolutism in Great Britain. 339 Traditions of European Intellectual History (EU) A. Karn
This course takes as its subject the main ideas, key figures, philosophical debates, and major literary movements of Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries. It explores the tensions between tradition and progress, freedom and authority, reason and the unconscious, belief and skepticism, and revolution and non-violence. This is a course about ideas — some vast, dazzling, and groundbreaking, some muddled and misguided — and the historical contexts in which they appeared. 340 20th-Century European Intellectual History (EU) R. Douglas, A. Karn
At the beginning of the 20th century, European men and women of ideas agreed that the continent was experiencing an unprecedented intellectual crisis, as the optimistic and positivist doctrines of Victorian liberalism began to crumble in the face of radical challenges from left and right alike. This course examines the transformation in European world-views that has occurred during the past 100 years, focusing in particular on such themes as the growth of “cultural despair,” the intellectual impact of the Great War, the New Physics, Gramscian and Lukácsian neo-Marxism, second- and third-wave feminism, existentialism, faith after the Holocaust, the generation of 1968, and the ideas of the Frankfurt School. 343 The Formation of the Russian Empire (EU) C. Stevens
A study of politics and society in the Russian lands from Kiev to Alexander I. This course focuses especially on the rise of the Muscovite state, its cultural diversity, and its preoccupation with trade, treason, and winning wars; the Petrine reforms and Russia’s emergence as a European power; the palace coups; and Catherine II and the Enlightenment. This course is crosslisted as REST 343. 344 Imperial Russia and the Soviet Revolution (EU) C. Stevens
Russian history from Napoleon’s defeat to the collapse of the Soviet Empire since 1989. Topics studied include the autocracy of Nicholas I, the Great Reforms, the emergence of revolutionary movements, industrialization and a changing society, the revolutions and the Bolshevik 1920s, the rise of Stalinism, and World War II and the Cold War. It concludes with the disintegration of the U.S.S.R. into its component parts. This course is crosslisted as REST 344. 346 Germany and Eastern Europe, 1848–1989 (EU) R. Nemes
This course traces the often troubled history of Central and Eastern Europe from the Revolution of 1848 to the fall of the Berlin wall. Topics include the unification of Germany, the collapse of Austria-Hungary, and the emergence of Poland; the two world wars, fascism, and communism; and post-war occupation, division, and dissent. 348 History of Women in Europe in Modern Times (EU) J. Harsin, C. Stevens
An examination of the experience of women in modern European history. Topics include the significance of childbirth and family size in the lives of women, women in the Renaissance, the witch craze, women and religion, the role of women in the labor force, middle-class reform movements, and the development of 20th-century feminist ideologies. 349 20th-Century Britain (EU) London Study Group Director
This course studies major political, social, and economic developments in Britain since 1900. The evolution of British institutions, commonwealth relations, and foreign policy are considered. Prerequisite: HIST 102
or AP credit in European history, or permission of instructor. Usually offered in London. 350 Post-War Europe, 1945 to the Present (EU) R. Douglas, A. Karn
This course studies Europe’s changing status in the global community since 1945 and the domestic effects of that change. Topics include the movement toward European Union, the Cold War, decolonization, the rise and fall of Communism, and the emergence of multi-racial Europe. The course also explores critiques of material prosperity and consumer culture in the West and the tenacity of nationalism in an era characterized by supra-national ideologies. Prerequisite: HIST 102
or AP credit in European history, or permission of instructor. 353 History of the Modern Balkans (EU) R. Nemes
This course examines key episodes in the history of the Balkans from the mid-19th century to the present. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of different peoples, cultures, and political systems, and on the meaning of Balkan history for European history. Topics include the great powers and their role in the Balkans, the reforms and revolutions of the 19th century, the wars of the 20th century, the varieties of Balkan nationalism, patterns of social and economic change, the nature of Stalinism, the Cold War, and finally, the recent conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo. 358 Conquest and Colony: Cultural Encounters in the New World (GL) H. Roller
This course explores contrasting patterns of colonization in the “New World,” as this hemisphere was once termed by Europeans. Traditionally, such comparative studies have focused on the cultural differences among the European colonizers, but this course focuses equally on the cultural differences among the indigenous peoples of the Americas. As the divergent groups confronted and dealt with each other in the 16th and 17th centuries, they established widely varying patterns of living that would impact the histories of their descendants for generations to come. 359 Nationalism and Arab Identity in the 20th Century (GL) N. Khan
The concept of nationalism has dominated much of the cultural and political debate in the Arab world since the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. For most of the 20th century, nationalism competed with other forms of identity in the Middle East, and many of the tensions between local and larger categories of identity among Arabs remain unresolved. Through this course students are made aware of the many forms of affiliation that have competed for primary loyalty in the Arab cultural and political sphere, and of the multiple definitions of “nation” that have co-existed. The historical reasons for the relative success of some interpretations over others are explored. The course focuses on issues of identity, interpretation, and organization that impact the region — and the world — even now. Prerequisites: HIST 259
or POSC/MIST 215. 362 The Mughal Empire, c. 1500–1750 (GL) J. Balachandran
The Mughal Empire was one of the most extensive and powerful early modern empires. At its height, the Mughal Empire comprised most of the geographic area of the Indian subcontinent. From the origins of the Mughal dynasty to the consolidation of an imperial order and later its disintegration, this course examines the complex political, ideological, social, and cultural processes that enabled to Mughal Empire to thrive. Apart from reading recent scholarly literature on the Mughals, students work with a variety of primary source material from the period, including memoirs, court chronicles, European travel accounts, and paintings. 363 History of the Indian Ocean World (GL) J. Balachandran
The Indian Ocean has been a zone of human interaction for several millennia. This maritime highway facilitated the circulation of individuals, ideas, commodities, and technologies, connecting the Indian subcontinent to the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf regions on the one hand and to Southeast Asia on the other. This course introduces students to the growing historical field of the Indian Ocean world and explores several themes including trade, diplomacy, migration, slavery, piracy, European expansion, and various kinds of cultural exchange across this vast body of water. While the Indian Ocean shaped the history and identity of many cultures and communities, the main focus of the course is on the Indian subcontinent. Organized around themes that highlight change and continuity, the period covered roughly coincides with the emergence of Islam in the 7th century to the entry of various European powers in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the emergence of colonialism in the 19th century. Students work with a variety of primary sources including travel narratives, personal accounts, and diplomatic correspondences. No prior background in the history of the Indian subcontinent is required, though students are encouraged to take HIST 268
and/or 269. 368 China, the Great Wall, and Beyond (GL) D. Robinson
This course examines key issues in military, cultural, social, and political history in China from 1200 to 1750. In particular, the course compares foreign peoples who conquered China like the Mongols and Manchus with the last “native” dynasties in Chinese history. Through close reading of primary documents and modern scholarship, students consider styles of rulership, the impact of war and the military on society, developments in intellectual life, and international relations of the most populous country in the world. 369 Modern China (1750–present) (GL) D. Robinson
This course has a dual focus: China’s internal development during this period and its complex interaction with the newly dominant powers of the West and Japan. The course begins with the prosperous “high Qing,” and then turns to the tumultuous Taiping rebellion of the mid-19th century and the political, military, and social changes it engendered. Then the Chinese efforts to meet the challenges of the new world order first through a Confucian revival and later through embracing Western technology and ideas are examined. The class traces the development of the Chinese Communist party and the KMT, warlordism, China’s involvement in World War II, and the founding of the People’s Republic of China. The course concludes with a look at the effects of the economic and political reforms of the past two decades. 370 The Mongol Empire (GL) D. Robinson
This course traces the origins and impact of the greatest land empire in history. Late in the 12th century, Ghenghis Khan unified the steppe and assembled an awesome military force. During the next decades, the Mongols conquered most of Eurasia. Students examine steppe military traditions, relations between the steppe and the sown, and the establishment of the Mongol empire. Drawing on eye-witness accounts, historical chronicles, art, and modern scholarship, the course explores Mongol methods of rulership in the Middle East, East Asia, and Inner Asia and how a century of Mongol domination reshaped world history. 377 History of Culture in the Caribbean (GL) B.L. Moore
This course examines the historical development of diverse creole cultures in the Caribbean, based on a core of neo-African traditions and Amerindian influences, and shaped by the impact of almost five centuries of European cultural imperialism. It explores the cultures of various ethnic groups that were introduced to the Caribbean in the wake of European colonization, their separate struggles for cultural autonomy and self-determination, and the emergence of creole cultures to which all contributed. Specific aspects of Caribbean culture are studied to comprehend the process of creolization. This course is crosslisted as ALST 377
. 378 Systems of Forced Labor in the Caribbean (GL) B.L. Moore
From the moment Europeans invaded the Caribbean under Columbus in 1492, they regarded the region as a zone of economic exploitation from which wealth could be extracted using forced labor. The Spanish enslaved and rapidly decimated the indigenous peoples before turning to Africa for slave labor. Other European nationalities tried white indentured labor before also turning to enslaved African labor. After the slavery was abolished, the European colonizers continued the pattern of exploitation through forced labor by indenturing hundreds of thousands of new immigrant workers from India, Africa, and China. Forced labor remained the engine of the Caribbean plantation economy until the end of the First World War. This course examines how these forced labor systems shaped the growth of the economy and society in the Caribbean, as well as the relations among the various subaltern groups that made up the labor force. This course is crosslisted as ALST 378
. 381 Pre-Colonial Africa (GL) T. Etefa
This course surveys African history to 1880: its peoples and their environments, early Islamic North Africa, Bantu expansion, early states of the northern savannas, the kingdom of Ethiopia, the impact of medieval Islam, Europe’s discovery of Africa and the slave trade, and later European missionary and commercial enterprise. 382 Modern Africa (GL) T. Etefa
This study of Africa from 1880 to the present includes the following topics: European settlement in South Africa and Rhodesia/Zimbabwe; background to the scramble for the rest of Africa; partition by the European powers; British, French, Portuguese, and Belgian colonial regimes; nationalist resistance movements; “patrimonial” post-independence regimes and growing resistance to them in the 1990s. 384 Somalia: From Independence to Collapse (GL) T. Etefa
This course examines the history of modern Somalia from 1960 to the present. Major themes include the partition of Somaliland, Somali resistance; colonial rule in Somaliland; independence and problems of independence; the Siad Barre government; irredentist claims and wars; the collapse of Somalia; international intervention and aftermath; attempts to form a government, Islamic Courts Union, and al-Shabab fighters; and piracy. Lectures are supplemented by discussions, films, and group presentations. 385 Darfur in Historical Perspective (GL) T. Etefa
This course examines the history of the Darfur crisis. Topics include the people of Darfur, ethnic relations and conflicts, conquest and colonial legacy, Darfur and the Sudan government, the rebels, responses of the Sudan government and Janjaweed, the war, human rights violations, foreign powers, the challenge of humanitarian intervention, and the future of Darfur. Students explore the responsibilities and opportunities we have, as individuals and as a nation, to respond to the refugee migrations, human rights abuses, and genocides that haunted the 20th century and that are beginning to plague the 21st century. The course exposes students to historical causes of the crisis and some of the humanitarian challenges facing the world today. The course also offers multiple frameworks for thinking about what roles we might play in influencing public policy and having an impact on people in need. Through lectures, discussions, group work, paper presentations, film, and guest speakers, students are able to understand and analyze the crisis that the United Nations called “the world’s worst humanitarian disaster” and the United States called “genocide.” 450 Seminar in East Asian History (GL) D. Robinson
Selected problems in East Asian history from early modern times to the present. Typical offerings include social history of late Imperial China, chaos and order in early modern Japan, and moments in East Asian history. Prerequisite: one course in Asian history or permission of instructor. 455 Race, Class, and Culture in Anglophone Caribbean Society after Slavery (GL) B.L. Moore
This seminar studies the societies of the former British colonies in the Caribbean in the period from the emancipation of slavery in 1838 to the end of the First World War (1918). It focuses on the transformation and reconfiguration of these societies after slavery consequent on the importation of new ethnic groups, and examines in depth the salience of race, color-class, and culture in determining social status. Social and cultural change consequent on British efforts to “civilize” society through religion and education is analyzed, and inter-ethnic relations resulting from efforts to preserve white minority dominance are examined. This course is crosslisted as ALST 455. 459 Seminar on Modern Middle Eastern History (GL) N. Khan
This course covers selected topics in the history of the Middle East from 1600 AD, including political and social institutions of the Ottoman Empire, European economic and cultural penetration, and the colonialism and nationalisms that developed from 1798. Although the majority of the assigned readings focus on the territories once belonging to the Ottoman Empire, research on Iran and the Persian Gulf as well as some Central Asian and/or North African territories is allowed. Students become familiar with the major historiographical debates in the field and are expected to refer to them in their independent research projects. Prerequisites: HIST 259
or sufficient documented background to secure the permission of instructor. 462 Seminar on Problems in African History (GL) T. Etefa
Selected topics in African history from the ancient times to the present. Possible topics include African kingdoms and civilizations, expansion of Europe and the conquest of Africa, African resistances to colonialism, decolonization, colonial legacy, socio-economic and political developments in post-independence Africa, ethnic relations and conflicts, modern and indigenous mechanisms of governance. Students become familiar with the major historiographical debates in the field and are expected to refer to them in their research project. Prerequisites: one African history course or permission of instructor. 472 Seminar in Revolutionary and Early National American History (US) G. Hodges
Selected topics in revolutionary and early national history, including slavery and freedom during the American Revolution and in the early republic, the creation of a political order, and religion and politics in revolutionary America. Prerequisite: HIST 203
or HIST 303,
or permission of instructor. 475 Seminar in African American History (US) C. Banner-Haley
Selected problems in African American history, including the civil rights movement and African American intellectual history in the 20th and 21st centuries. Prerequisite: HIST 218, 318,
or permission of instructor. 476 Seminar on Problems in the 19th-Century United States (US) F. Dudden
Selected topics in 19th-century United States history, including antebellum politics and culture, antebellum reform movements, the coming of the Civil War, and crises of the Reconstruction era. Prerequisite: HIST 103
or AP credit in U.S. history, or permission of instructor. 478 Seminar on Problems in the 20th-Century United States (US) A. Rotter
Selected topics in political, social, and cultural history, explored through a combination of assigned readings and research in primary sources. Examples include the Great Depression and World War II era, the culture of the Cold War, the United States during the 1960s, and the formation of American identities — religious, ethnic, and racial, as well as national. Prerequisite: one course in 20th-century U.S. history. 479 Seminar on Problems in the History of U.S. Foreign Policy (US) A. Rotter
Selected topics, explored through a combination of assigned readings and research in primary sources. Past seminars have included U.S.-East Asia relations in the 20th century, the origins of the Cold War, and the role of culture, race, and gender in U.S. foreign relations. Prerequisites: HIST 215, 216,
or permission of instructor. 480 Seminar on Problems in Latin American History (GL) H. Roller
This seminar explores Latin American history “from below,” focusing on the lives and perspectives of indigenous peoples, slaves, peasants, and workers, with case studies from the colonial period through the 20th century. Readings include a wide range of translated primary sources. Prerequisite: one course in Latin American history or permission of instructor. 482 Seminar on Problems in British History since 1800 (EU) R. Douglas, London Study Group Director
This course examines topics in the history of modern Britain and its empire (including pre-independent Ireland). Political, social, economic, diplomatic, and cultural approaches are included. Usually offered in London. 483 Seminar on French History, 1700–Present (EU) J. Harsin
This course studies selected problems in French history from the end of the reign of Louis XIV to the present. Each seminar focuses on a particular topic (the old regime and revolution, the revolutionary tradition in the 19th century, the inter-war years and World War II, for example). No prerequisites. 484 Seminar on Modern European Cultural and Intellectual History (EU) R. Douglas, A. Karn, R. Nemes
This course takes as its subject selected themes and topics in the cultural and intellectual history of Europe from the late 18th century to the present. Prerequisite: one course in modern European history or permission of instructor. 486 Seminar on Problems in Medieval History (EU) A. Cooper
Selected topics in the history of the European Middle Ages, with readings in great historiographical debates as well as intensive study of primary sources. Possible topics include the culture of Late Antiquity, monasticism, fear and hatred in the Middle Ages, the crusades, popular religiosity, economic development and transformation, intellectual trends, and the origins of law and government. Prerequisite: HIST 202
or by permission of instructor. 487 Seminar on the History of Russia (EU) C. Stevens
This course includes directed reading and research from translated primary sources on selected topics in Russian history. Past topics include the Russian Revolution, Stalinism, Russian social history, national minorities in the Russian Empire, Russia and the Cold War, and Russian popular culture. Prerequisite: background in Russian history. 489 Seminar on Problems in Military History (EU) R.M. Douglas, C. Stevens
This course focuses on the role of organized violence in history in the context of military-civil relations and change in military technology and methodology. The period covered is ancient to modern (1945), mainly European and non-Western. Each seminar concentrates on a particular era. 490 Honors Seminar in History Staff
An honors seminar for candidates for honors and high honors in history. Students enroll in this seminar to complete or extend a paper already begun in another history course. Enrollment is limited to seniors with a history GPA of 3.45 or higher, or the permission of instructor and department chair. Offered in the spring only. 291, 391, 491 Independent Study Staff
These courses offer upperclass and graduate students the opportunity to pursue individual study under the guidance of a member of the staff. Prerequisite: permission of the faculty member and department chair.